We have never traveled (man or man-made object) out of our solar system. The "pictures" of the milky way are renderings based on studies of similar galaxies and some math. Pretty sure it is at least Algebra 2
There are pictures of parts of the Milky Way galaxy from Hubble, but not of the entire galaxy itself.
I think what we have a really good idea what is out there in every direction. After that, they just sort of turn it so we're looking at the whole thing as if we were out in space. I think they can do this pretty accurately.